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Longitudinal neural and vascular structural dynamics produced by chronic microelectrode implantation.

Cristin G Welle, Yu-Rong Gao, Meijun Ye, Andrea Lozzi, Adam Boretsky, Erkinay Abliz, Daniel X Hammer

Implanted microelectrode arrays sense local neuronal activity, signals which are used as control commands for brain computer interface (BCI) technology. Patients with tetraplegia have used BCI technology to achieve an extraordinary degree of interaction with their local environment. However, current microelectrode arrays for BCIs lose the ability to record high-quality neural signals in the months-to-years following implantation. Very little is known regarding the dynamic response of neurons and vasculature in the months following electrode array implantation, but loss of structural integrity near the electrode may contribute to the degradation of recording signals. Here, we use in-vivo dual-modality imaging to characterize neuronal and vasculature structures in the same animal for 3 months following electrode insertion. We find ongoing neuronal atrophy, but relative vascular stability, in close proximity to the …

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