Tissue damage thresholds during therapeutic electrical stimulation.
Stuart F Cogan, Kip A Ludwig, Cristin G Welle, Pavel Takmakov
Recent initiatives in bioelectronic modulation of the nervous system by the NIH (SPARC), DARPA (ElectRx, SUBNETS) and the GlaxoSmithKline Bioelectronic Medicines effort are ushering in a new era of therapeutic electrical stimulation. These novel therapies are prompting a re-evaluation of established electrical thresholds for stimulation-induced tissue damage.
In this review, we explore what is known and unknown in published literature regarding tissue damage from electrical stimulation.
For macroelectrodes, the potential for tissue damage is often assessed by comparing the intensity of stimulation, characterized by the charge density and charge per phase of a stimulus pulse, with a damage threshold identified through histological evidence from in vivo experiments as described by the Shannon equation. While the Shannon equation has proved useful in assessing the likely …
Journal of neural engineering